The numerous types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are divided into state-of-the-art (fast-growing) and low-grade (slow-growing).
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a cancer which affects lymphocyte cells in the lymphatic system. Lymphocytes are leukocyte and lymphatics, blood and marrow are all carefully associated and can have similar problems. Cancers of all three are usually called haematological cancers (or cancers of the blood) and are managed by blood and cancer professionals – haematologists and oncologists. Lots of people with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are cured. Around 4 out of 5 cases of lymphoma are non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The other type of lymphoma is called Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
- Causes of a non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
- Symptoms and Signs of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
- Swollen lymph glands (lymph nodes)
- Secondary Symptoms
- Types of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
- Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Stages
- Treatment of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
- Monoclonal Antibodies
- Stem Cell Transplant
- Watch and wait
- Prognosis for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Causes of a non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
The cause is not known. If your immune system does not work well (for instance, if you have AIDS) your threat of establishing a non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is increased. Nevertheless, this just accounts for a little number of cases.
Other risk factors which have been recognized include:
- Hepatitis C.
- Epstein-Barr infection – the glandular fever infection.
- Exposure to consider the environment such as pesticides, cleans, solvents.
It is not an inherited condition and does not run in families.
The cancer appears to begin with one irregular cell. In the case of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the cancer establishes from a lymphocyte cell which becomes unusual. The precise reason that the cell ends up being cancerous is uncertain. It is believed that something damages or changes specific genes in the cell. This makes the cell unusual. If the irregular cell survives, it might increase and produce numerous abnormal cells. See the different leaflet called Cancer for more general info about cancer.
The malignant lymphocytes tend to gather in lymph glands (lymph nodes). The lymph nodes end up being bigger and form cancerous tumours. Some abnormal cells might take a trip to other parts of the lymphatic system such as the spleen. So you might establish lots of large cancerous lymph nodes and an enlarged spleen.
Cancerous lymphocytes can likewise form lymphoma tumours in locations in the body outside of the lymphatic system. This is since lymphocytes can likewise take a trip in the bloodstream. Differing kinds of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can trigger tumours to develop in the lining of the stomach or, rarely, in the brain.
Who develops non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and how common is it?
Anybody can be affected. A lot of cases happen in individuals over the age of 50. 13,600 people in the UK developed a non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in 2015. It is the sixth most typical type of cancer in the UK. Men are more typically affected than women.
Symptoms and Signs of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Swollen lymph glands (lymph nodes)
The most typical early sign is to establish several swollen lymph nodes in one area of the body – most frequently the side of the neck, an underarm or the groin. The swollen lymph nodes tend to be painless and slowly become bigger. They can sometimes be painful though.
If the impacted lymph nodes are in the chest or belly (abdomen), you might not be aware of them in the early stages of the disease.
The most common reason for swollen lymph nodes is infection. For example, it is very typical to develop swollen nodes in the neck throughout tonsillitis. Lymphoma is an uncommon reason for swollen lymph nodes. Nevertheless, a lymphoma may be presumed if lymph nodes remain swollen, or if there is no infection to cause the swelling.
Other general symptoms might develop – for example:
- Sweats (specifically during the night).
- Episodes of high temperature (fevers).
- Weight loss.
- Being off food.
- Itch all over the body.
Different other symptoms may establish if the lymphoma occurs outside of the lymphatic system. For instance, stomach pain if the lymphoma establishes in the stomach.
As a non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma establishes you may feel usually unwell. If the lymphoma tumours become big and press on close-by parts of the body, different other symptoms can establish. For instance, you may develop cough or breathing problems if the tumour remains in the chest.
To validate the medical diagnosis
If your doctor believes that you may have a lymphoma you will be described an expert. An expert will normally organize a biopsy of among the swollen lymph glands (lymph nodes).
A biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from a part of the body. Sometimes an entire lymph node is gotten rid of. The sample is then seen under a microscope to try to find irregular cells. The sample is likewise evaluated in other ways.
Grade of the lymphoma
The microscopic lense enables abnormal cells to be seen. By taking a look at particular functions of the cells and by doing numerous other tests on the cells, the specific type of lymphoma can be detected.
Assessing the degree and spread (staging)
If the biopsy validates that you have a non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma then even more tests are usually recommended. For instance, you might have a computerised tomography (CT) scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, blood tests, a bone marrow biopsy or other tests. This assessment is called staging.
Types of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Examples of types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma include:
- Scattered large B-cell lymphoma.
- Lymphoblastic lymphoma.
- Follicular lymphoma.
- Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.
- Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.
- Mantle cell lymphoma.
However, there are other types. Although there are numerous types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, they are usually divided (graded) into two categories – high-grade and low-grade.
- High-grade (fast-growing). The malignant cells tend to grow and increase rather rapidly and are more aggressive.
- Low-grade (slow-growing). The cancerous cells tend to grow and multiply quite slowly and are not so aggressive.
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Stages
The aim of staging is to discover just how much the lymphoma has grown locally and whether it has actually spread to other lymph nodes or to other parts of the body. The staging system that is typically used for non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas is:
- Stage 1 – the lymphoma is confined to one group of lymph nodes just.
- Stage 2 – the lymphoma impacts 2 or more groups of lymph nodes. However, they are all on the same side of the diaphragm. (The diaphragm is the big muscle that separates the chest from the stomach (abdominal area) and helps us to breathe. So, for stage 2, all the affected nodes will either be above or below the diaphragm.).
- Stage 3 – the lymphoma affects nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.
- Stage 4 – the lymphoma impacts parts of the body outside of the lymphatic system.
Each stage is likewise divided into A or B. A means that you do not have symptoms of night sweats, episodes of high temperature (fevers) or weight loss. B indicates that you do have several of these symptoms. So, for instance, if you have stage 2B, it means that you have 2 or more groups of lymph nodes impacted. However, both are either above or below the diaphragm and you also have one or more of night sweats, fevers or weight reduction.
By learning the type, grade and stage of the lymphoma it helps physicians to encourage on the very best treatment alternatives. It likewise provides a sensible indication of outlook (prognosis).
Treatment of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
The treatment encouraged for each case depends on different elements such as the exact type and stage of the lymphoma. In specific, whether it is top-quality or low-grade, your age, your general health, the size of the affected lymph glands (lymph nodes) and which parts of the body are impacted.
Treatment may intend to cure the lymphoma. Some non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas can be treated. In particular, most state-of-the-art non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas can be treated with treatment. Physicians tend to use the word remission rather than the word treated. Remission means there is no proof of lymphoma following treatment. If you remain in remission, you might be treated. Nevertheless, sometimes, a lymphoma returns months or years later on. This is why physicians are sometimes reluctant to use the word treated.
Treatment may intend to manage the lymphoma. If a remedy is not reasonable, it is frequently possible to restrict the growth or spread of the lymphoma with treatment. This generally indicates that it advances less quickly. This might keep you devoid of symptoms for a long time. Numerous low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas can not be cured but can be controlled, often for quite a long time.
Treatment may intend to alleviate symptoms. If a remedy is not possible, treatments might be used to minimize the size of lymphoma tumours. This might relieve symptoms such as pain. If a non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is advanced then you may need treatments such as painkillers or other treatments to help keep you free of pain or other symptoms.
Treatments which might be thought about include the following:
Chemotherapy is a treatment which uses anti-cancer medications to kill cancer cells, or to stop them from increasing. Top-quality non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are usually treated with chemotherapy medicines given directly into the vein (intravenous chemotherapy).
A mix of medications is generally utilized. The most typical mix utilized is with the medicines: cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone. (This combination is often called CHOP.) Another medicine called rituximab is likewise typically utilized for treatment.
For low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, when active treatment is encouraged then intravenous chemotherapy or chemotherapy tablets are the most commonly used treatments.
This treatment is sometimes used in addition to chemotherapy. (For example, an item called rituximab is the frequently used monoclonal antibody.) Monoclonal antibodies are little proteins and are different to normal chemotherapy. They work by connecting to the unusual lymphocytes, which helps to ruin them without damaging other cells.
Radiotherapy is a treatment which utilizes high-energy beams of radiation which are concentrated on cancerous tissue. This kills cancer cells, or stops cancer cells from multiplying. It tends to be mainly utilized if you just have one or two impacted lymph nodes.
Stem Cell Transplant
A stem cell transplant (in some cases called a bone marrow transplant) is in some cases done. Stem cells are the immature cells that become fully grown blood cells (consisting of lymphocytes) in the bone marrow.
First high-dose chemotherapy (and often radiotherapy) is given to eliminate all the abnormal lymphocytes. Nevertheless, this likewise eliminates the stem cells that make normal blood cells. So, after the chemotherapy, you are given a transplant of stem cells which then make normal blood cells. The transplant will normally originate from somebody else, who has healthy cells.
Surgery is not utilized very frequently. Occasionally, an operation might be done to remove an organ (such as the spleen) or part of an organ that is severely damaged by a lymphoma. In some cases a large mass of tumour might be gotten rid of to de-bulk the tumour prior to chemotherapy.
Watch and wait
No treatment might be encouraged at first for low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. This method is called watch and wait. This approach is generally utilized if you feel generally well and have no symptoms from the lymphoma (apart from pain-free swollen lymph nodes).
Low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas can grow very slowly and might not require any treatment for rather a long time – often over a year. Chemotherapy or other treatments might be delayed till the disease triggers symptoms.
Your expert will want to examine you frequently to look at the size of the lymph nodes and how quick they are growing and to check you over. They will advise on when treatment needs to be started.
If you have non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma it’s important to keep your vaccinations approximately date, especially those hat protect you from flu and pneumonia.
Prognosis for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
The outlook (prognosis) depends upon different elements that include the exact type, grade and stage of the lymphoma. Very normally:
- Many people with a high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma will be cured. For that reason, the usual aim of treatment for high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is to cure it. A remedy is most likely in cases which are at an early stage. Nevertheless, there is still a good chance of a remedy even with those in advanced stages. Although a state-of-the-art non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is fast-growing and aggressive, the cells tend to be more quickly killed with chemotherapy than low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas.
- With slow-growing low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, chemotherapy is less likely to be curative than with high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. However, treatment may control the disease and keep you free of symptoms for months or years. Also, due to the fact that they are slow-growing, frequently low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas appear sluggish to cause any pain (indolent) and not actually to progress quite for quite a long time.
The treatment of cancers such as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a developing area of medication. New treatments continue to be developed and the info on outlook above is very basic. The professional who knows your case can provide more precise details about your particular outlook, and how well your type and stage of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are most likely to react to treatment.