Abnormal uterine bleeding (previously, dysfunctional uterine bleeding [DUB] is irregular uterine bleeding that happens in the absence of recognizable pelvic pathology, basic medical disease, or pregnancy. It reflects an interruption in the normal cyclic pattern of ovulatory hormonal stimulation to the endometrial lining. The bleeding is unforeseeable in many methods. It may be exceedingly heavy or light and might be prolonged, regular, or random.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal bleeding from the vaginal area that is due to modifications in hormonal agent levels. Known alternative names are Anovulatory bleeding; Bleeding – inefficient uterine; DUB; Abnormal uterine bleeding-hormonal; Menorrhagia – inefficient; Polymenorrhea – inefficient; Metrorrhagia – inefficient.
It is bleeding that is NOT caused by:
- Pregnancy or miscarriage
- Medical conditions, such as cancer or fibroids
- Issues with the uterus or vagina from infection or other causes
Your doctor will dismiss other possible causes of irregular bleeding. In most women, abnormal uterine bleeding is triggered by a hormone imbalance.
DUB is more common in teens or in women who are approaching menopause.
DUB is unpredictable. The bleeding might be extremely heavy or light and can take place frequently or randomly.
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Causes of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Every woman’s menstrual cycle, or period, is different.
- Typically, a female’s period happens every 28 days.
- The majority of women have cycles between 24 and 34 days apart. It normally lasts 4 to 7 days.
- Girls may get their durations anywhere from 21 to 45 days or more apart.
- Women in their 40s will frequently discover their period happening less often.
About monthly, the levels of female hormonal agents in a female’s body fluctuate. Estrogen and progesterone are two hormonal agents that play a crucial function in ovulation. This is the time when the ovaries launch an egg.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding most typically occurs when the ovaries do not release an egg. Modifications in hormone levels cause your duration to be later or earlier and sometimes much heavier than normal.
Symptoms of Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
Symptoms of dysfunctional uterine bleeding may include:
- Bleeding or spotting from the vagina between durations
- Durations that take place less than 28 days apart (more common) or more than 35 days apart
- Time between durations modifications monthly
- Heavier bleeding (such as passing big clots, needing to change defense during the night, soaking through a sanitary napkin or tampon every hour for 2 to 3 hours in a row).
- Bleeding that lasts for more days than normal or for more than 7 days.
Other symptoms brought on by changes in hormonal agent levels may include:
- Excessive growth of body hair in a male pattern (hirsutism).
- Hot flashes.
- Mood swings.
- Tenderness and dryness of the vagina.
A female may feel worn out or tired if she is loses excessive blood with time. This is a symptom of anemia.
Your health care company will do a pelvic exam and may do a Pap test. Other tests that might be done include:
- Complete blood count (CBC).
- Blood clotting profile.
- Hormonal agent tests, for FSH, LH, male hormone (androgen) levels, prolactin, and progesterone.
- Pregnancy test.
- Thyroid function tests.
- Pap smear.
Your provider might advise the following:
- Culture to look for infectionBiopsy to look for precancer, cancer, or to help select hormonal agent treatment.
- Hysteroscopy, performed in the doctor’s workplace, to look into the uterus through the vaginal area.
- Ultrasound to try to find issues in the uterus or pelvis.
Treatment for DUB
Young women as much as age 18 might be treated with low-dose combination birth control pills.
In other women, treatment may include one or more of the following:.
- Low-dose birth control pills.
- High-dose estrogen therapy for women with very heavy bleeding.
- Intrauterine device (IUD) that launches the hormonal agent progestin.
- Ibuprofen or naproxen taken just before the duration begins.
Women over age 40 and older might have the alternative to get cyclic progestin or cyclic hormonal agent therapy.
A healthcare supplier might suggest iron supplements for women with anemia.
If you wish to get pregnant, you might be given medication to stimulate ovulation.
Women with severe symptoms that do not get better with other treatments might consider the following treatments if they no longer wish to have children:
Surgical procedure to ruin or eliminate the lining of the uterus.
Hysterectomy to get rid of the uterus.
Hormonal agent therapy usually eliminates symptoms. Treatment might not be needed if you do not establish anemia due to blood loss.
Complications that may take place:
- Infertility (inability to get pregnant).
- Severe anemia due to a lot of blood loss in time.
- Increased risk for endometrial cancer.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have unusual vaginal bleeding.