Although brain lesion is a serious disease, it is not easy to recognize it at an early stage. In this article, we will introduce you to the causes, symptoms, methods of diagnosis and, finally, methods of treatment of human brain damage.
Lesions are a kind of damage to the brain. Brain lesions might not produce any symptoms initially. As lesions get worse gradually, though, symptoms become more obvious.
What is Lesioning of the Brain?
Brain lesions are a kind of damage to any part of brain. Lesions can be due to disease, trauma or an abnormality. In some cases lesions appear in a particular area of the brain. At other times, the lesions are present in a large part of the brain tissue. Initially, brain lesions may not produce any symptoms. As lesions get worse with time, the symptoms end up being more noticeable.
How Does the Brain Work?
The brain manages thoughts, memory, speech, motions of the limbs, and organ function. There are many parts to the brain, and each area has a particular role to play in the body.
- Frontal lobe – the largest of the 4 lobes, is accountable for the body’s motor skills, such as voluntary motion, language, and intellectual and behavioral functions. This area manages memory, intelligence, concentration, temper and personality.
- Temporal lobe – located on each side of the brain at ear level, is important for hearing, memory and speech.
- Parietal lobe – at the center of the brain, is where sensory details like heat, pressure and pain is received and analyzed.
- Occipital lobe – found at the back of the brain, is mostly accountable for vision.
What Causes Brain Lesions to Establish?
Brain lesions can be brought on by numerous different triggers. The list below aspects put a person at greater danger to get brain lesions:
- Family history of brain lesions. The danger increases if somebody else in the family has had the condition.
- Vascular conditions, such as stroke, high blood pressure, and cerebral artery aneurysms
- Trauma to the brain, which can trigger internal bleeding. If not fixed, it could cause death.
- Infections, damaging germs or bacteria in the brain. These can cause diseases like meningitis and encephalitis (both types of swelling (inflammation) of the brain).
- Tumors that either begin in the brain (main tumors) or travel there (metastatic) through blood or lymphatic vessels
- Autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and multiple sclerosis. These result when the body’s antibodies start to attack the body’s own tissues, such as those tissues in the brain
- Plaques, or excess build-up of irregular protein in the brain tissues or in the blood vessels, slowing down the supply of blood to the brain, as seen in clogged arteries. Alzheimer’s disease, a condition that affects a person’s memory, thinking and habits, establishes because of plaques in brain tissues. Multiple sclerosis can likewise cause plaques in the brain secondary to harmed tissue.
- Exposure to radiation or specific chemicals that increase the chance of tumors and lesions in the brain.
- Toxins, such as extreme quantities of alcohol or cigarette smoke, in the body. Other poisonous substances are elevated levels of ammonia and urea in the body due to kidney issues (can affect brain function however may not show discrete brain lesions).
- Poor diet, specifically consuming foods with excess fats and cholesterol
What Diseases Cause Brain Lesions?
- Stroke, vascular injury, or impaired supply of blood to the brain is perhaps the leading reason for lesions on the brain.
- Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a disease where brain lesions lie in multiple sites of the brain. Those suffering from MS have considerable issues with motor and sensory functions.
- Lupus, an autoimmune disease, impacts nearly all systems of the body varying from skin to heart, liver, muscles and brain. Brain lesions are usually a symptom of this disease.
- Tumors are likewise a reason for brain lesions and irregular growth of brain cells.
Symptoms of Lesioning of the Brain
Symptoms of brain lesions vary depending on the kind of lesion, its extent, and where it is found. Everyone is different and symptoms will vary in specific cases. Many lesions, however, might remain in areas of the brain that do not produce symptoms.
Common symptoms may consist of:
- Headaches are generally the first symptom to appear with brain lesions. The pain appears suddenly and gets worse as time passes. Over-the-counter medication generally offers no relief for the pain.
- Nausea and possible vomiting
- Impaired movement, if the lesion affects the part of the brain accountable for motor abilities
- Absence of concentration, the failure to make quick decisions, and agitation
- Delayed speech, blurred vision, and impaired hearing
- Uncontrolled movements of body parts, which may advance to convulsions in severe cases
The following symptoms specify to lesions of the frontal lobe:
- Lack of sense of odor, normally limited to one nostril
- Speech impairment
- Loss of motor activity on one or both sides of the body
- Behavioral changes
The following symptoms specify to lesions of the temporal lobe:
- A change in behavior and emotions
- Interruption in the sense of odor, taste, and hearing
- Language and speech disorders
- Issues with visual field
- Lapse of memory and the inability to focus
The following symptoms specify to lesions of the parietal lobe:
- Loss of experiences like touch
- Astereognosis, or the failure to identity things put in the hand
- Deteriorating of language development
The following symptoms are specific to lesions of the occipital lobe:
- Changes in vision
If symptoms recommend that a person may be experiencing a brain lesion(s), it is very important to get in touch with the medical professional for a consultation. A doctor will assist diagnose and offer treatment alternatives for each patient depending upon the level of the condition.
The medical professional will ask concerns about the patient’s symptoms and case history and then perform a physical examination.
In order to discover the location of the lesion, the doctor might touch the patient’s skin with hot, cold or vibrating things, and likewise may pinch the patient to look for the feeling of pain. Additional tests may also be recommended by the physician to more evaluate the condition.
What tests diagnose brain lesions?
After a health examination, the medical professional may likewise suggest that the patient schedule a diagnostic test, such as a computed tomography, or CT or CAT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI. These tests will help the doctor determine the location of the lesion and will also help assess the level of damage the lesion has actually caused the brain.
Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a diagnostic image utilized to examine bone, blood and brain tissue. In some cases, a medication is injected through the patient’s vein to help highlight brain structures. A CT scan uses radiation.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic test that produces three-dimensional, or 3D, images of the within the body using magnetic fields and computer technology. It reveals brain tissue detail as well as the brain stem, and cerebellum (posterior brain) much better than a CT scan. An MRI of the brain can help identify whether there are signs of previous mini-strokes. A medication (contrast) can also be injected to assist high light structures.
Lesioning of the Brain Treatment
Treatment varies in each private case depending on the kind of lesion, its area, and cause. It is essential that an extensive evaluation be finished by a medical professional to establish the proper treatment plan.
The treatment options depend on the type of lesions and severity of symptoms. Usually medicines can be used to treat the underlying cause. Surgery may be a choice in some cases, such as when the lesions are triggered by a brain tumor.
Sometimes, lesions and symptoms do not enhance even after proper diagnosis and correct treatment and the goal is to handle symptoms.