Swan-Ganz catheterization (also known as Right heart catheterization; Catheterization – right heart) is the death of a thin tube (catheter) into the right side of the heart and the arteries resulting in the lungs. It is done to keep track of the heart’s function and blood circulation and pressures in and around the heart. This test is usually performed in people who are really ill.
How the Test is Performed
The test can be done while you remain in bed in an intensive care system (ICU) of a health center. It can likewise be carried out in unique procedure areas such as a cardiac catheterization lab. Before the test starts, you might be provided medicine (sedative) to assist you relax. You will push a padded table. Your doctor will make a small surgical cut near the groin or in your neck. A versatile tube (catheter or sheath) is placed through the cut into a vein. In some cases, it will be placed in your leg or your arm. You will be awake during the procedure.
A longer catheter is inserted. It is then carefully moved into the upper chamber of the right side of the heart. X-ray images may be used to help the healthcare company see where the catheter needs to be put. Blood may be eliminated from the catheter. This blood is tested to measure the amount of oxygen in the blood. During the procedure, your heart’s rhythm will be continuously seen using an electrocardiogram (ECG).
Preparation for Catheterization
You need to not eat or drink anything for 8 hours before the test starts. You may have to remain in the medical facility the night before the test. Otherwise, you will check in to the hospital the early morning of the test. You will wear a health center dress. You must sign a consent kind prior to the test. Your company will discuss the procedure and its risks.
How the Test will Feel
You might be given medicine to help you unwind prior to the procedure. You will be awake and able to follow instructions during the test. You might feel some discomfort when the IV is positioned into your arm. You might likewise feel some pressure at the site when the catheter is inserted. In people who are seriously ill, the catheter may remain in place for several days. You might feel discomfort when the area of the vein is numbed with anesthetic.
Why Swan-Ganz Catheterization is Performed?
The procedure is done to evaluate how the blood relocations (circulates) in people who have abnormal pressures in the heart arteries, burns, hereditary heart disease, heart failure, kidney disease, leaking heart valves, lung issues or shock. It might likewise be done to keep track of for complications of a heart attack. It also demonstrates how well particular heart medicines are working. Swan-Ganz catheterization can also be used to identify irregular blood flow between two areas of the heart that are not typically connected. Conditions that can likewise be detected or evaluated with Swan-Ganz catheterization include:
- Cardiac tamponade
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Limiting cardiomyopathy
What Does Swan-Ganz Catheterization Results Mean?
1. Normal Ranges
Normal results for this test are:
- Cardiac index is 2.8 to 4.2 liters per minute per square meter (of body surface area).
- Pulmonary artery systolic pressure is 17 to 32 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
- Pulmonary artery suggest pressure is 9 to 19 mm Hg.
- Pulmonary diastolic pressure is 4 to 13 mm Hg.
- Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is 4 to 12 mm Hg.
- Right atrial pressure is 0 to 7 mm Hg.
2. Abnormal Results
Irregular outcomes might be because of:
- Blood circulation issues, such as heart failure or shock.
- Heart valve disease.
- Lung disease.
- Structural problems with the heart, such as a shunt from an atrial or ventricular septal problem.
Risks of the procedure include:
- Bruising around the area where the catheter was placed.
- Injury to the vein.
- Puncture to the lung if the neck or chest veins are used, triggering lung collapse (pneumothorax).
Very uncommon complications include:
- Cardiac arrhythmias requiring treatment.
- Cardiac tamponade.
- Embolism caused by blood clots at the tip of the catheter.
- Low blood pressure.