Microcephaly is a neurological condition in which the area of an infant’s head is smaller sized than average for the infant’s size and age. Microcephaly’s causes, symptoms, and treatments are gone over.
What Is Microcephaly?
Microcephaly is a neurological condition in which the area of the head (the determined distance around the top) is smaller than average for a baby’s size and age. The disorder can be present at birth or acquired throughout the first couple of years of a kid’s life. Microcephaly is typically connected with some degree of mental retardation. Nevertheless, in 15% of the cases, the kid has normal intelligence. Microcephaly is uncommon, happening from 1 per 6200 to 8500 births.
Life Expectancy of Microcephaly
Prognosis for microcephaly varies and depends upon the presence of other existing medical conditions. In general, however, life expectancy for children with microcephaly is decreased, and the prospects of achieving normal brain function are poor.
What Causes Microcephaly?
The expansion of the brain identifies the growth of the skull. Microcephaly usually occurs because the brain stops working to grow at an average rate. This can be caused by a variety of conditions or direct exposure to harmful compounds during fetal advancement. A few of these causes consist of:
- Chromosomal conditions such as Down syndrome, Cri du chat syndrome, Trisomy 13, and Trisomy 18.
- Maternal viral infections such as rubella (German measles), toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus.
- Maternal alcohol addiction or drug abuse.
- Maternal diabetes.
- Mercury poisoning.
- Uncontrolled maternal PKU.
- Maternal malnutrition.
Acquired microcephaly might take place after birth due to numerous brain injuries such as an absence of oxygen or infection.
What Are the Symptoms of Microcephaly?
Aside from a noticeably smaller head, the following are the most typical symptoms of microcephaly:
- High-pitched cry.
- Poor feeding.
- Increased movement of the arms and legs (spasticity).
- Developmental delays.
- Psychological retardation.
As the child ages, his or her face continues to grow while the skull does not. This triggers the child to develop a disproportionately big face, a receding forehead and a loose, frequently old and wrinkly scalp. The rest of the body is frequently underweight and proportionately smaller sized than usual.
How Is Microcephaly Diagnosed?
Microcephaly can in some cases be detected before birth by prenatal ultrasound. Often, however, it may not appear by ultrasound until the 3rd trimester, and for that reason may not be seen on an ultrasound performed previously in pregnancy.
The majority of the time, the diagnosis will not be made until birth or later on in infancy. Along with noting that the baby’s head circumference is much smaller sized than usual, the doctor will perform a complete physical examination and acquire a total prenatal and birth history of the child. When it comes to the next advancement of the condition, the doctor may ask the parents about developmental turning points such as crawling and strolling, since microcephaly is often accompanied by mental retardation.
How Is Microcephaly Treated?
Usually, there is no specific treatment for microcephaly. Since microcephaly is a life-long condition that is not correctable, management of the condition includes optimizing the kid’s abilities in the house and the neighborhood. Favorable reinforcement will motivate the child to enhance his or her self-esteem and promote as much self-reliance as possible.
The complete extent of microcephaly is generally not entirely understood instantly after birth but may be exposed as the kid grows and establishes.
A kid born with microcephaly requires regular assessments and diagnostic testing by a medical professional to keep an eye on the development of the head as she or he grows. The medical team works with the child’s family to provide education and assistance to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Helping to Child With Microcephaly
The full range of concerns usually is not understood right after birth. Concerns can be exposed as a kid grows and develops. Kids born with microcephaly need to see their healthcare team typically. They will require tests to track the growth of the head. Their motor, social, intellectual, and language function will be tracked over time.
You can help your kid strengthen his/her self-confidence and be as independent as possible. Your child might need physical and occupational rehabilitation. She or he may require extra assistance in school. The healthcare team will talk with you about the very best ways to help your child.
When Should I Call My Child’s Healthcare Provider?
Call the doctor if your kid has:
- Symptoms that do not improve, or become worse
- New symptoms
- Bottom line about microcephaly in children
- Microcephaly is a condition where a baby’s head is much smaller sized than usual. It is frequently present at birth (congenital).
- The majority of children with microcephaly likewise have a little brain and intellectual disability. Some kids with small heads have normal intelligence.
- Issues throughout a woman’s pregnancy might cause microcephaly. In some cases, it might be triggered by acquiring an irregular gene.
- Microcephaly is a lifelong condition that has no remedy. Treatment focuses on preventing or minimizing issues and optimizing a child’s capabilities.
- Children born with microcephaly need to see their healthcare team often. They will need tests to track the growth of the head. Their motor, social, intellectual, and language function will be tracked with time.
- Your doctor might encourage hereditary therapy. You can find out more about the danger for microcephaly in a future pregnancy.
Tips to assist you to get the most from a visit to your kid’s doctor:
- Know the reason for the checkout and what you want to happen.
- Before you see, write down concerns you want to be answered.
- At the go to, make a note of the name of a new medical diagnosis, and any new medications, treatments, or tests. Also, document any new instructions your service provider gives you for your kid.
- Know why a new medication or treatment is prescribed and how it will assist your child. Likewise, know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your kid’s condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or treatment is advised and what the outcomes could imply.
- Know what to anticipate if your kid does not take medicine or have the test or treatment.
- If your child has a follow-up visit, document the date, time, and function for that visit.
- Know how you can call your kid’s provider after work hours. This is necessary if your child ends up being ill and you have concerns or need advice.