A hemolytic transfusion reaction (also known blood transfusion reaction) is a serious issue that can occur after a blood transfusion. The reaction takes place when the red cell that were provided during the transfusion are destroyed by the person’s body immune system.
There are other types of allergic transfusion responses that do not cause hemolysis.
Blood transfusions are most frequently done for blood elements, such as red cell, platelets, or plasma. Prior to a blood transfusion, a medical supplier will draw your blood. This sample will be sent to a laboratory for typing and crossmatching. Typing is when the laboratory determines blood type. Crossmatching is checking to identify if your blood works with a donor’s blood of the very same type.
Causes of Transfusion Reactions
Blood is classified into four different types: A, B, AB, and O.
Another method blood cells may be categorized is by Rh aspects. People who have Rh consider their blood are called “Rh positive.” People without these elements are called “Rh negative.” Rh negative people form antibodies against Rh element if they receive Rh positive blood.
There are also other aspects to determine blood cells, in addition to ABO and Rh.
Your immune system can typically inform its own blood cells from those of another person. If you receive blood that is not suitable with your blood, your body produces antibodies to destroy the donor’s blood cells. This procedure causes the transfusion reaction. Blood that you receive in a transfusion should work with your very own blood. This suggests that your body does not have antibodies versus the blood you get.
Most of the time, a blood transfusion in between suitable groups (such as O+ to O+) does not cause an issue. Blood transfusions between incompatible groups (such as A+ to O-) cause an immune reaction. This can lead to a severe transfusion reaction. The immune system assaults the contributed blood cells, triggering them to burst.
Today, all blood is carefully screened. Transfusion responses are unusual.
Symptoms of Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction
Symptoms may include any of the following:
- Back pain
- Bloody urine
- Fainting or dizziness
- Flank pain
- Flushing of the skin
Symptoms of a hemolytic transfusion reaction usually appear during or right after the transfusion. In some cases, they may establish after several days (postponed reaction).
This disease may alter the results of these tests:
- Coombs test, direct
- Coombs test, indirect
- Fibrin degradation products
- Partial thromboplastin time
- Prothrombin time
- Serum bilirubin
- Serum creatinine
- Serum hemoglobin
- Urine hemoglobin
Treatment for of Blood Transfusion Reactions
If symptoms occur during the transfusion, the transfusion should be stopped right away. Blood samples from the recipient (individual getting the transfusion) and from the donor may be evaluated to tell whether symptoms are being triggered by a transfusion reaction.
Mild symptoms might be treated with:
- Acetaminophen, a pain reliever to reduce fever and pain
- Fluids given through a vein (intravenous) and other medications to treat or prevent kidney failure and shock.
Result depends on how bad the reaction is. The condition might vanish without problems. Or, it may be severe and deadly.
Complications may consist of:
- Severe kidney failure.
- Lung problems.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Inform your healthcare service provider if you are having a blood transfusion and you have had a reaction prior to.
Prevention for Transfusion Reactions
Contributed blood is taken into ABO and Rh groups to decrease the risk of transfusion reaction.
Before a transfusion, recipient and donor blood are checked (cross-matched) to see if they work. A small amount of donor blood is mixed with a percentage of recipient blood. The mix is examined under a microscopic lense for signs of antibody reaction.
Before the transfusion, your health care company will usually examine once again to make sure you are getting the right blood.