Insulin Function in Human Body

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Insulin is a hormonal agent produced by the pancreas that has a number of important functions in the body, particularly in the control of blood sugar levels and avoiding hyperglycemia. It also has a result on several other areas of the body, consisting of the synthesis of lipids and regulation of enzymatic activity.

Insulin Function in Human Body

Insulin and Metabolic Processes

The most crucial role of insulin in the body is its interaction with glucose to permit the cells of the body to use glucose as energy. The pancreas usually produces more insulin in reaction to a spike in blood sugar level level, for instance after consuming a meal high in energy. This is since the insulin functions as a “crucial” to open up the cells in the body and enables the glucose to be used as an energy source.

Additionally, when there is excess glucose in the blood stream, referred to as hyperglycemia, insulin encourages the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver, muscle and fat cells. These stores can then be used at a later date when energy requirements are higher. As a result of this, there is less insulin in the bloodstream, and normal blood glucose levels are brought back.

Insulin promotes the synthesis of glycogen in the liver, however when the liver is filled with glycogen, an alternative pathway takes control of. This includes the uptake of extra glucose into adipose tissue, causing the synthesis of lipoproteins.

Also read: What Are the Dangers of High Doses of Insulin?

Results Without Insulin

In the lack of insulin, the body is unable to use the glucose as energy in the cells. As a result, the glucose remains in the bloodstream and can lead to high blood sugar level, known as hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia is characteristic of diabetes mellitus and, if neglected, is connected with severe complications, such as damage to the nervous system, eyes, kidneys and extremities.

In severe cases, absence of insulin and lowered ability to use glucose as a source of energy can lead to a reliance of fat stores as the sole source of energy. The breakdown of these fats can launch ketones into the bloodstream, which can lead to a major condition called ketoacidosis.

Also read: Blood Sugar Test

Other Functions of Insulin

In addition to the regulation of glucose, insulin likewise contributes in other areas of the body. It might be associated with all the following functions to:

  • Modify the activity of enzymes and the resulting responses in the body.
  • Construct muscle following illness or injury through the transportation of amino acids to the muscle tissue, which is required to repair muscular damage and boost size and strength. It helps to regulate the uptake of amino acids, DNA duplication and the synthesis of proteins.
  • Manage synthesis of lipids by uptake into fat cells, which are converted to triglycerides.
  • Manage breakdown or protein and lipids due to modifications in fat cells.
  • Uptake of amino acids and potassium into the cells that can not occur in the absence of insulin.
  • Manage excretion of sodium and fluid volume in the urine.
  • Enhance knowing and memory of the brain functions.

It appears that insulin plays a number of important functions in the body, including the management of sugar levels in the blood and many other areas.


Last modified: March 13, 2017

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