Blood Sugar Test

What does glucose mean in a blood test? A blood sugar test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. The test also known as Random blood sugar level; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening – blood glucose test; Diabetes – blood glucose test.

Glucose is a major source of energy for many cells of the body, including brain cells. Carbs are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly become glucose in your body. This raises your blood glucose level.

Hormonal agents made in the body aid control blood sugar level.

How Blood Sugar Test is Performed

A blood sample is needed.

How to Prepare for the Test

The test might be carried out in the following methods:

  • After you have not consumed anything for at least 8 hours (fasting).
  • At any time of the day (random).
  • 2 hours after you drink a certain amount of glucose (oral glucose tolerance test).

How the Test will Feel

When the needle is placed to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Later, there might be some throbbing or minor bruising. This quickly goes away.

Why Blood Sugar Test Is Performed.

Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of diabetes. More than likely, the doctor will purchase a fasting blood sugar level test.

The blood sugar test is likewise used to monitor people who already have diabetes.

The test may likewise be done if you have:

  • An increase in how frequently you have to urinate.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Confusion or a modification in the way you normally talk or act.
  • Fainting spells.
  • Seizures (for the first time).

Screening for diabetes

This test might also be used to evaluate an individual for diabetes.

The blood sugar level tests might be used for screening and medical diagnosis of type 1, type 2 or prediabetes. (Gestational diabetes testing is various– see listed below.) If the preliminary screening result from one of the tests is abnormal, the test is repeated on another day. The repeat result must likewise be abnormal to confirm a medical diagnosis of diabetes.

High blood sugar level and diabetes may not cause symptoms in the early stages. A fasting blood glucose test is almost always done to evaluate for diabetes.

If you are over age 45, you ought to be evaluated every 3 years.

If you have any of the risk factors below, ask your healthcare supplier about getting checked at an earlier age and more often:.

  • Obese (body mass index, or BMI, of 25 or greater) and other risk factors.
  • Blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher, or unhealthy cholesterol levels.
  • Member of a high-risk ethnic group (African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander).
  • Woman who has provided a baby weighing 9 pounds (pound) or more, or who had gestational diabetes.
  • Polycystic ovary disease.
  • Close relative with diabetes (such as a parent, brother or sister).

Children age 10 and older who are obese and have at least 2 of the risk factors noted above need to be checked for type 2 diabetes every 3 years, even if they have no symptoms.

Normal Results of Blood Sugar Test

If you had a fasting blood sugar test, a level in between 70 and 100 mg/dL is considered normal.

If you had a random blood sugar test, a normal result depends upon when you last consumed. The majority of the time, the blood glucose level will be listed below 125 mg/dL.

The examples above show the typical measurements for outcomes of these tests. Normal worth varieties might vary somewhat amongst different labs. Some laboratories use various measurements or may test different specimens. Speak with your doctor about the significance of your specific test results.

What Abnormal (High or Low) Sugar Levels Mean

If you had a fasting blood sugar test:

  • A level of 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) means you have impaired fasting glucose, a type of prediabetes. This increases your risk of establishing type 2 diabetes.
  • A level of 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) and higher generally means you have diabetes.

Random Blood Sugar Test Results

If you had a random blood glucose test:

  • A level of 200 mg/dL (11 mmol/L) or greater typically implies you have diabetes.
  • Your doctor will order a fasting blood sugar, HbA1c test, or glucose tolerance test, depending upon your random blood glucose test outcome.
  • In someone who has diabetes, an abnormal result on the random blood sugar test might suggest that the diabetes is not well managed.

Other Causes of High Glucose in Your Blood

Other medical problems can also cause a higher-than-normal blood glucose level, including:

  • Overactive thyroid gland.
  • Pancreatic cancer.
  • Swelling and inflamation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
  • Stress due to trauma, stroke, cardiac arrest, or surgery.
  • Uncommon tumors, consisting of pheochromocytoma, acromegaly, Cushing syndrome, or glucagonoma.

Causes of  Low Sugar Levels

A lower-than-normal blood glucose level (hypoglycemia) might be because of:

  • Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder).
  • Underactive thyroid gland or adrenal gland.
  • Tumor in the pancreas (insulinoma – really unusual).
  • Too little food.
  • Too much insulin or other diabetes medications.
  • Liver or kidney disease.
  • Weight loss after weight reduction surgery.
  • Vigorous workout.

Some medications can raise or reduce your blood sugar level. Prior to having the test, inform your supplier about all the medicines you are taking.

For some thin young women, a fasting blood glucose level below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) might be normal.

Risks During The Test

Veins and arteries differ in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Acquiring a blood sample from some individuals may be more difficult than from others.

Other risks associated with having actually blood drawn are minor, however may consist of:

  • Excessive bleeding.
  • Fainting or feeling lightheaded.
  • Hematoma (blood collecting under the skin).
  • Infection (a small risk at any time the skin is broken).

Last modified: February 6, 2017

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