Sialadenitis is bacterial infection of a salivary gland, usually due to a blocking stone or gland hyposecretion. Symptoms are swelling, pain, inflammation, and tenderness. Medical diagnosis is clinical. CT, ultrasonography, and MRI might assist recognize the cause. Treatment is with prescription antibiotics.
Salivary gland infections impact the glands that produce saliva (spit). The infection might be due to bacteria or viruses.
There are 3 pairs of significant salivary glands:
- Parotid glands. These are the two largest glands. One lies in each cheek over the jaw in front of the ears. Swelling of one or more of these glands is called parotitis, or parotiditis.
- Submandibular glands. These 2 glands located at the back of the mouth on both sides of the jaw.
- Sublingual glands. These 2 glands lie are under the floor of the mouth.
- All the salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth. The saliva enters the mouth through ducts that open into the mouth in various places.
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Causes of Salivary Gland Infection
Salivary gland infections are somewhat common, and they can return in some individuals.
Viral infections such as mumps typically affect the salivary glands. Mumps most often includes parotid salivary gland). Mumps is an unusual issue today since of the MMR vaccine.
Bacterial infections are most often the outcome of a:
- Blockage from salivary duct stones.
- Poor tidiness in the mouth (oral hygiene).
- Low quantities of water in the body, frequently while in the medical facility.
- Cigarette smoking.
- Chronic disease.
- Unusual tastes, foul tastes.
- Reduced capability to open the mouth.
- Dry mouth.
- Mouth or facial pain, especially when eating.
- Soreness over the side of the face or the upper neck.
- Swelling of the face (particularly in front of the ears, below the jaw, or on the floor of the mouth).
Tests and Exams
Your health care carrier or dental professional will do an examination to look for enlarged glands. You may likewise have pus that drains into the mouth. The gland might be painful.
A CT scan, MRI scanor ultrasound may be done if the doctor presumes an abscess.
Antistaphylococcal antibiotics to treat salivary gland infection
In many cases, no treatment is required.
Regional steps (eg, sialagogues, warm compresses).
Preliminary treatment is with prescription antibiotics active versus S. aureus (eg, dicloxacillin, 250 mg po qid, a 1st-generation cephalosporin, or clindamycin), modified according to culture outcomes. With the increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, especially amongst the senior living in extended-care nursing facilities, vancomycin is commonly needed.
Hydration, sialagogues (eg, lemon juice, difficult sweet, or some other substance that triggers saliva circulation), warm compresses, gland massage, and good oral hygiene are likewise vital. Abscesses need drainage.
Occasionally, a shallow parotidectomy or submandibular gland excision is indicated for patients with chronic or relapsing sialadenitis.
Self-care actions you can take in your home to assist with recovery include:
- Practice great oral hygiene. Brush your teeth and floss well a minimum of twice a da. This might aid with healing and prevent an infection from spreading.
- Wash your mouth with warm salt water rinses (1/2 teaspoon of salt in 1 cup of water) to ease pain keep the mouth moist.
- Stop smoking if you are a smoker, to speed up healing.
- Drink lots of water and use sugar-free lemon drops to increase the flow of saliva and lower swelling.
- Massaging the gland with heat.
Many salivary gland infections disappear on their own or are treated with treatment. Some infections will return. Issues are not typical.
- Abscess of salivary gland.
- Infection returns.
- Spread of infection (cellulitis, Ludwig’s angina).
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if:
You have symptoms of a salivary gland infection.
You’ve been diagnosed with a salivary gland infection and symptoms become worse.
Get medical aid immediately if you have a high fever, difficulty breathing, or ingesting problems.
In some cases, salivary gland infections can not be prevented. Great oral health may avoid some cases of bacterial infection.
Alternative Names: Parotitis; Sialadenitis.